Job scripts: Advanced topics#
This page contains some more advanced commands and additional ways to request resources. Make sure to first read our Running jobs in Slurm page.
It is possible to specify the number of nodes, or a range of number of nodes, for a job. However, those options should always be used in combination with other options.
In combination with
In addition to specifying the number of tasks and CPUs per task for a job, it is also possible to specify the number of nodes that should be used. This is very useful on clusters that may spread out your tasks over more nodes than the minimum needed, which can happen if you would run your job on clusters (or partitions) that allow multiple users per node or even multiple jobs of a single user per node. Parallel jobs that get spread out over more nodes than really needed may show decreased performance due to more communication over the cluster interconnect (rather than through shared memory within the node) or interference with other jobs on the node (that, e.g., might cause cache thrashing if they have a bad memory access pattern).
Specifying the number of nodes that will be used can be done with either
--nodes=<number of nodes> or
-N <number of nodes>. If it is specified, then this
is the exact number of nodes that will be allocated.
It is also possible to specify both a minimum and a maximum number of nodes
--nodes=<minimum number>-<maximum number> or
-N <minimum number>-<maximum number>. However, we ask you not to use this option
without consulting us first and discussing why it would make sense for your job.
Note that you should be very careful when specifying the number of nodes:
Requesting more nodes than really needed is very asocial behaviour as it will decrease the efficiency of cluster use and lengthen the waiting time for other users.
If you request less nodes than is required to accommodate the tasks (if also specifying the number of tasks and of CPUs per task), your job will be refused by the system.
If you only request nodes and forget to further specify the number of tasks and CPUs per task, you will get the default of 1 CPU per node.
Never use this option on the clusters at UAntwerp except to request (and use) full nodes as in the current Slurm configuration the empty cores cannot be used by other jobs.
In combination with
In this scenario, a user specifies:
The number of nodes needed for a job using either
--nodes=<number of nodes>or
-N <number of nodes>. Just as above, it is possible to specify a minimum and maximum value. The system will allocate the maximum value if possible, but given the high load on a typical cluster, you’re more likely to get the minimum number. Note also that you may then need to detect the number of tasks etc. that you can actually run if your code does not automatically adapt but requires parameters on the command line or in the input file to specify the node configuration.
The number of tasks per node using
--ntasks-per-node=<number of tasks per node>. The default is one task per node.
The number of CPUs per task using
--cpus-per-task=<CPUs per task>or
-c <CPUs per task>. Failing to specify this value results in getting one CPU per task.
In this case also one should be very careful when specifying the parameters:
Not filling up the nodes optimally is very asocial behaviour as it will decrease the efficiency of the cluster use and lengthen the waiting time for others.
Requesting a number of tasks per node in combination with a number of CPUs per task that cannot be accommodated on the cluster, will lead to the job being refused by Slurm.
This option should only be used on the UAntwerp cluster if you can fill nodes completely or have a very good reason to leave some cores empty.
Minimizing distance on the network for faster communications#
The nodes in a cluster are connected with each other through a number of switches that form a hierarchical network tree (also called a topology). On the UAntwerp clusters, the topology is a variant of the tree. All nodes are connected to an edge switch and hence split up naturally in groups corresponding to the edge switch they are connected with. These edge switches are then connected through a number of top level switches so that all nodes can communicate with each other.
This means that traffic between two nodes either passes through just a single switch (if the nodes are connected to the same edge switch) or through a series of three switches (edge - top - edge). Obviously, traffic that passes through multiple switches will incur a higher latency. Slurm tries to minimize network contention by identifying the lowest level switch in the hierarchy that can satisfy a job’s request and then allocates the requested resources, based on a best-fit algorithm and the currently available resources. This may result in an allocation with more than the optimum number of switches when the cluster is under a heavy load (as is usually the case on the UAntwerp clusters).
A user can request a maximum number of switches for a job using the
option. Usually, one would specify
--switches=1 here to make sure the job runs on
nodes which are all connected to the same edge switch.
Note that this may increase the wait time of the job (because the scheduler has
less nodes to choose from).
Optionally, a maximum time delay can be specified as well using
--switches=<count>@<max-time> to tell the scheduler that it can delay the job until
it either finds an allocation with the desired switch count, or to ignore the switches
request when the time limit expires.
Advanced Slurm commands#
The scontrol command#
scontrol command is mostly meant for system administrators. In fact, most of the
actions that scontrol can perform, cannot be performed by regular users.
One good use for regular users though is to get more information about one of your jobs:
scontrol -d show job <jobid>
will show extensive information for the job with job ID
Some software might require a list of hostnames:
scontrol show hostnames
in the context of a job, returns a list of (unqualified) hostnames of the allocated nodes. This can be used, e.g. with bash scripting, to generate a nodelist file in the format required by the software.
The sinfo command#
sinfo command can return a lot of information about a Slurm cluster. Understanding
its output does require a good understanding of the Slurm concepts
(see our basic Slurm use page).
will print a list of partitions with their availability, nodes that will be used to run jobs within that partition, number of nodes in that partition, and the state. The default partition will be marked with an asterisk behind the partition name.
sinfo -N -l
will return a more node-oriented output. You’ll see node groups, the partition they belong to, and the amount of CPUs, memory (in MB), and temporary disk space available on that node group. On Vaughan the output is rather boring as all nodes are identical.
By specifying additional command line arguments it is possible to further customize the output format. See the sinfo manual page.